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家庭主妇不容易

卫生间电灯泡寿终正寝,踩着桌子+椅子才终于伸手够着。好不容易换下来密码一般的型号ESSU15W40E27 4000K里却只能看懂15W,在网络上找到一篇解密文>>, 才信心百倍去超市买新的。

E27: Edison Screw爱迪生螺旋,直径27mm,简称ES

4000K:指的是灯泡光的色度,K指越小温度越高色度越暖,4000K属于当中,灯泡发出的光叫Cool White。

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一直奇怪这株长在夹缝中的植物竟然能油光发亮,后来才知道是旁边热水器解压阀时不时地输送暖流。第一次看见解压阀连绵滴水还以为出大事了,翻箱倒柜找出说明书,得来就一句话,请找有执照的水管工。最后还是在网络上找到一个看似很有水平的答复,找一个空的冷饮盒,放在水管下,过一个小时再去查看。如果水溢出那就真得找人修了,不然就是正常的“热胀冷缩”。

雨露灌溉,果然绿意盎然

雨露灌溉,果然绿意盎然

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买房必看>>

Discover what Melbourne is like as a place to live, work and play >> 

想找修理工,可以看看Hipages works >>

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墨尔本花草市场

  1. Bentleigh Sunday Market
    开放时间:每周日早7点到中午
    地址:1 Bent Street Bentleigh
    花草比较多,也比较便宜。
  2. Caribbean Garden Market
    开放时间:每周三、五、日早8:30 到下午4:30
    地址:1280 Ferntree Gully Road Scoresby
    周三和周五不要门票,周三卖花草的最多。
  3. Dandenong Trash and Treasure Market
    开放时间:每周日早8点到2点
    地址:115 South Gippsland HWY Dandenong
    花草不是太多
  4. Trash and Treasure Market
    开放时间:每周日早晨到中午
    地址:Mountain HWY Wantirna
    卖花草和果树的很多,价格也便宜。
  5. Gardenworld
    开放时间:每天早9点到下午5点
    地址:810-834 Springvale Road Braeside
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春节的吃

坐在电车上,看到Queen Market附近的一家店放鞭炮舞龙灯,隔着马路隔着车玻璃炮仗声也能直达耳膜。一轮爆竹过后,电车上的乘客开心地鼓起掌来,但中间听到一句中国话,在国内放抓住坐15天牢。。。

春节年味越过越淡的根本原因不是因为物质丰富,而是说这些话的人离无忧无虑得童年越来越远。小孩子还是很期盼春节的,至少他们在拿压岁钱时个个眯开眼笑。

今年春节的特别制作是炸猪排。一块猪排被刀背拍扁拍松后,占地面积能比盘子还大。我们上海人吃炸猪排,一定要加辣酱油。

下个星期回上海,以下是我的菜单 慢慢补。。。

馅心黄芽菜肉丝的春卷

黄芽菜、塌棵菜、粉丝、蛋饺、咸肉和肉圆的砂锅

有日本豆腐、兰花豆腐、鹌鹑蛋的麻辣烫

桂花酒酿水铺蛋

红肠

烘山芋

生煎馒头、小笼馒头、肉馒头

油墩子、粢饭糕、粢饭包油条、蛋饼

小馄饨

水磨粉黑洋酥汤团

两条带鱼,一条油煎一条红烧

黄鳝

冰山一角

在看完The Remains of the Day、The Better Angels of Our Nature等几本书后就如漫画中的George那样,千头万绪却又浮不上来。我的顾虑在于不敢落笔,因为今天的大数据可不象刚来澳洲那阵只会给发放“报考中文学习班”的小广告,连我年迈的父母都已经在电脑摄像头上贴好了邦迪。

能浮在水面的只多是风花雪月。我好想对Miss Kenton说,你不就是那个不想当管家只想跟着爱情跑的傻丫头?回顾往事还要徒劳无益地自我催眠”One should realize one has as good as most, perhaps better, and be grateful.”也好想对Mr Stevens说既然知道天地有大美而不言” What is pertinent is the calmness of that beauty, its sense of restraint. It is as though the land knows of its own beauty, of its own greatness, and feels no need to shout it out.”,又何必为了”greatness /dignity…” my heart was breaking?

在写下去就得狐假虎威先亮出Steven Pinker的观点:

The Rights Revolutions too have given us ideals that educated people today take for granted but that are virtually unprecedented in human history, such as that people of all races and creeds have equal rights, that women should be free from all forms of coercion, that children should never, ever be spanked, that students should be protected from bullying, and that there’s nothing wrong with being gay. I don’t find it at all implausible that these are gifts, in part, of a refined and widening application of reason.

我猜Steven Pinker教授对以上主流可能有点不合时宜的想法,几乎敢肯定的是男女性别差异。譬如他在10多年前的公开辩论>>,还有The Better Angels of Our Nature里曾引用了两个不怎么好笑却发人省思的笑话。第一个,In an old joke, a man asks a woman if she would sleep with him for a million dollars, and she says she would consider it. He then asks if she would sleep with him for a hundred dollars, and she replies, ‘What kind of a woman do you think I am?’ He answers, ‘We’ve already established that. We’re just haggling over the price.’ 第二个,A man wants what a woman has –sex. He can steal it (rape), persuade her to give it away (seduction), rent it (prostitution), lease it over the long term (marriage in USA), or own it outright (marriage in most societies).  不得不承认良家子的身体的确有价无市,可男人的尊严不也同属在一类里?(要是能甩出一张10000…的支票,大概得争先恐后才能强领胯下之辱。)显然我也蛮stereotype,看完的直觉反应就是能和女孩清白之躯相提并论的肯定不是浊臭逼人泥作的骨肉 。按照市场经济规律,物化后的身体高价者得,那低价者呢?Pinker教授直言不讳地说他们虽是不安定因素(成家立业的男性犯罪率显著降低)但也可派遣到边防保家卫国,所以政府才不会如表面上那般心急如焚。

 

Steven Pinker教授认定stereotype是人性的一个弱点,要克服就得启动逻辑。譬如为什么以取人不正确,因为任何一个种群里都有好人坏人。我则更倾向 诺本人得主Daniel Kahneman的理论。他说stereotype是个中性词,它也有积极正向的一面。比如盛传中国人数学都很厉害。通过实验确实发现华裔在阅读相关报道后再做数学题成绩有提高。其次动用System 2思考非常不容易,要不然很简单的一道题目The Bat and a Ball Problem(球和球拍一共为1.1元,球比球拍便宜1元,求球的价格)不可能难倒近乎一半的常青藤在校生。Nicholas Epley(插播一则八卦, Epley教授煞费苦心地终于通过实验和观测总结出与陌生乘客讲闲话能改善双方的well-being,结果芝加哥火车管理方告诉他,马上开始实行Quite Carriages)说stereotype致命缺陷是过于侧重不同点而忽视共同点。比如有一个大概家喻户晓的心理统计得出男女择偶果然大不同,郎爱貌女爱财。然而那篇论文还有一段鲜有人知的结尾,”Both sexes ranked the characteristics kind-understanding, and intelligent higher than earning power and attractiveness in all samples, suggesting that species-typical mate preferences may be more potent than sex-linked preferences.”意思是研究结果还发现无关性别大家最看重伴侣的特质是友善和聪慧。

Vline 很早就实行Quiet Carriages

Vline 很早就实行Quiet Carriages

我小时候看的是《三毛流浪记》,狄更斯的小说而不是《哈利波特》,所以对Parent-offspring conflict以及童话儿歌中的血腥阴暗面毫不惊奇。更何况我以为女性群体更看重生存而非繁衍。依据是西方学者曾先入为主地以为老龄化是富裕国家的专利,因此无法解释越来越多的“未富先老”。直到很后来才找到与出生率降低紧密关联的是女性能否access to contraception。现在有研究称越是男女平等的国家女性选择STEM专业的就越少,由此推断出女性打心眼里不喜欢数理化。我就想这会不会又是个“老龄化”问题呢?Epley教授也在课上讲过一则趣闻,他说一直以来科学家都想当然地以为小动物如蝴蝶甲虫身体上类似眼睛的东西是为了迷惑天敌,事实是只有人类才会将这些斑纹解读成眼睛,真正吓退掠食者的是颜色的鲜明反差。

“Currently no American state prohibits corporal punishment of children by their parents”这挺出乎意料的。我想这也属于stereotype吧,成因是读书太少。对于美国司法体系,我能想到的大概就是影视剧的警察给嫌疑人戴手铐时念遍米兰达警告。再举个例子,我读过1788 到 1868间有168,000英国罪犯流放来澳的史料,但我还读过当代澳洲的凶杀率比英国要低许多的统计,所以才能一眼看破《“偏见”中的澳大利亚》的漏洞。可没有其他信息渠道的读者呢,可能就象我以为“在美国父母不许打小孩”轻易就接受了作者输出的“除了出产金发碧眼胸大无脑的影视明星外澳洲一无是处”观点。至于编剧作者为什么不能老老实实地写实非要瞎七八搭乱讲一通,只好烂在心底了。

一叶障目看世界

一叶障目看世界

Nicholas Epley教授列出下面这张表格要想说明的是,大多数人都觉得自己持有的价值观(哪怕极其小众)和大众相一致。除此之外,我觉得还有一点很有意思,虽然有71%的被试者认为无故请病假不道德,但同一测试群中又有77%表示上班磨洋工没问题。”Although many mature individuals spontaneously express the intangible bases for their moral values and decisions, few people can articulate a principled justification, such as that human life is a cardinal value that trumps social norms, social stability, or obedience to the law. ”  再一次证明激活System 2思考有多难。也因此,在日常生活中Critical thinking要比intelligence更重要。Critical thinking is a collection of cognitive skills that allow us to think rationally in a goal-orientated fashion, and a disposition to use those skills when appropriate. 参照这个定义,我想若没有intelligence的根基似乎也难开出Critical thinking的果实。

到底有多少人觉得办公场所的“拿走主义”是不道德的呢?印刷数字有错误

到底有多少人觉得办公场所的“拿走主义”是不道德的呢?印刷数字有错误

24个性格优势

24个性格类型中,找出你最强的优势 >> 

2014年做过这个测试,2018年通过另个渠道又做了一遍。结果是前3位没有任何变动,倒数后3位是Spirituality、Gratitude和Love。Appreciation of Beauty & Excellence、Curiosity和Self-Regulation是上升幅度最大的,统统进入前十。而除了Love外,Bravery的下滑速度也蛮大的,看来年纪越大胆子越小,与自然亲近的同时就与人群疏离。

既然我那么Honesty,也就不会怕别人批评我“吃不到葡萄说葡萄酸”。这24个品质里,我最看重的确实是Love of learning,而Spirituality我是嗤之以鼻的,至于Gratitude觉得很cheesy。不知道为什么Love会排在21名?我自认蛮懂得投桃报李的,譬如别人给了我一株无花果我剪了一袋子的玫瑰送过去。我欠缺又特别想培养的品质是Kindness,个人觉得这些年进步很大,但其实只比2014年提高了2格~~

下图是2014年的测试结果

这个测试是在网络课程The Science of Well-Being>>里看到的,提高well-being的方法是

  • Savouring
  • Gratitude
  • Kindness
  • Social connection
  • Meditation
  • Sleep
  • Exercise
  • Goal setting

旧时衣裳

上次回家,爸爸居然还穿着“今年我18岁”的短袖白汗衫。这件汗衫是我18岁,参加学校组织的成年礼上的礼物。

我笑爸爸做人家,然而我也深得他的真传,譬如底下这一件,领口的污渍怎么都洗不干净了,可却舍不得扔,还穿着做yoga。这件汗衫是“庐山行”的队服,同行的另外3个人早已经没了联系。

舍不得扔

舍不得扔

读读上面的字,还蛮有意思

读读上面的字,还蛮有意思

下面的床单,是单位发给我值班用的。我还记得领导说这个图案蛮适合你的。。。

旧日的床单

旧日的床单

12 Rules for Life

我对self-help类的书没啥兴趣,但这一本放在推荐栏上,就翻了一下目录猜一猜内容。

其中至少有一半,我做不到。

Thinking, fast and slow

Thinking, fast and slow是继A brief history of humankind第二本令我眼界大开的奇书。作者牢牢贯彻了 “If you care about being thought credible and intelligent, do not use complex language where simpler language will do. Needlessly.”的精神,走笔如行云流水。譬如,谈及英年早逝的好搭档Amos,他不过写了一简单复合句He was then thirty-two; I was thirty-five,就已经让我胸中翻滚出“草草杯盘供语笑,昏昏灯火话平生”的酸楚。在书中还窥探出这位诺贝尔得主的日常起居竟然和我有很多重叠。作者一边散步上下班一边想multitasking应该仅限于简单任务,稍微增加点难度譬如心算23*78,那肯定要停下/放慢脚步(你可以测试一下)。作者一边看歌剧《茶花女》一边又会对比remembering self 和experiencing self之间的关系,不无沮丧地发现I am my remembering self, the experiencing self, who does my living, is like a stranger to me(这又是一句让我无法忘怀的金句)。作者和意见相左的同事一边吃着美味中国餐一边达成了对intuition的共识,即只在可预测的情景下(如下棋、拉琴、消防员救火等),反复训练才能培养出第六感,若情景千变万化(如买卖股票&红酒、诊疗)与其依赖专家经验不如听从计算机方程式。譬如执行 if ( good interactions : bad interactions >=5:1) {print “You’re In a Good Relationship”}就可在一团乱麻的感情关系中理出头绪,然而症结在于包括决策者在内的大多数人还没能作好心理准备接受披着白大褂的机器人。

说这是本奇书,是因为这些年来我所碰到的心理学方面的新名词新术语几乎都和作者有关,他自己的发现,和Amos的,和同事的,他学生的……以下就是总结。

Above-average effect: they compare themselves to the average without ever thinking about the average. The when people are asked about a task they find difficult (are you better than average in starting conversations with strangers?), they readily rate themselves as below average. Upshot is that people tend to be overly optimistic about their relative standing on any activity in which they do moderately well.  //我看到的版本是人们会夸大自己所有的能力,而这一版本表示只会夸大优点。

Affective forecasting: on their wedding day, the couple know that the rate of divorce is high and that the incidence of martial disappointment is even higher, but they do not believe that these statistics apply to them. //除了婚姻以外,通常以为很重要的决定因素如疾病、生育、贫穷似乎并不是左右人生质量整体评估的关键。

Affect heuristic: in which people let their likes and dislikes determine their beliefs about the world. For example, your political preference determines the arguments that you find compelling. //面对星巴克致癌新闻,有人讲撇开剂量谈毒性都是耍流氓,同一批人面对中医药可能用的是另一套逻辑(我不喝星巴克也不吃中医药)

Anchoring effect: it occurs when people consider a particular value for an unknown quantity before estimating that quantity.//我想iPhone的定价政策是个极好的例子,现在新出来的智能手机不再遵循“电子产品越来越便宜”的定律。

Availability heuristic: the process of judging frequency by the ease with which instances come to mind. People tend to assess the relative importance of issues by the ease with which they are retrieved from memory—and this is largely determined by the extent of coverage in the media.//作者举例Michael Jackson去世时铺天盖地的媒体报道,而我读这一章时恰逢霍金去世。作者虽然认为人们根本无法正确地理解past,但“太阳底下无新事”却又一次次地被佐证。

Base-rate neglect (Representativeness bias): WYSIATI-what you see is all there is. Ignore both the base rates and the doubts about the veracity of the description. They would then rank the small specialty as highly probable, because that outcome gets the highest representativeness score.

Black swan: all the headlines do is satisfy our need for coherence. A large event is supposed to have consequence, and consequences need causes to explain them. We have limited information about what happened on a day, and System 1 is adept at finding a coherent causal story that links the fragments of knowledge at its disposal. //之前看过的版本其中心思想是只要有一只黑天鹅就足够打破天鹅是白的定律,而这一版本的重点是人类低估了事件的偶然性,总以为有果必有因。

Certainty effect: the improvement from 0.95 to 1 is another qualitative change that has a large impact. Outcomes that are almost certain are given less weight than their probability justifies. A large industry of ‘structured settlements’ exists to provide certainty at a hefty price by taking advantage of the certainty effect. //付高昂保费只为提高一丁点的保险系数非常不理性, 100%理赔的保险项目要量力而为。

Confirmation bias: people seek data that are likely to be compatible with the beliefs they currently hold. The confirmatory bias of System 1 favors uncritical acceptance of suggestions and exaggeration of the likelihood of extreme and improbable events. //只看自己想看的东西,譬如支持Trump总统的多半只看Fox新闻台。

Conjunction fallacy: fallacy is used when people fail to apply a logical rule that is obviously relevant.  Conjunction fallacy means people commit when they judge a conjunction of two events to be more probable than one of the events in a direct comparison. When they judge a conjunction of two events (here, bank teller and feminist) to be more probable than one of the events (bank teller) in a direct comparison.

Denominator neglect: vivid imagery contributes to denominator neglect. The idea that fluency, vividness, and the ease of imagining contribute to decision weights gains support from many other observations. Tsunamis are very rare even in japan, but the image is so vivid and compelling that tourists are bound to overestimate their probability.  //希望工程要用大眼睛,世界自然基金会要用大熊猫。

Duration neglect: the duration of the procedure had no effect whatsoever on the ratings of total pain.

Peak-end rule: the global retrospective rating was well predicted by the average of the level of pain reported at the worst moment of the experience and at its end. //通过 cold-hand study推导出了Peak-end rule 和Duration neglect,证明出哪怕是亲身经历,我们的记忆也非常不可靠。也因此,作者说如果要长久快乐与其购置豪车不如参加能与他人互动的俱乐部。我并不同意后半句。因为发现有趣或新鲜的回答犹如大海捞针我现在戒掉了知乎。我猜有意思的人拥有更为广阔的世界,他们不太会浪费时间回答(脑残)问题,也不太会与没劲的人群(我)交往沟通。

Endowment effect: for goods that are not regularly traded, are held for use, to be consumed or otherwise enjoyed. No endowment effect is expected when owners view their goods as carriers of value for future exchanges, a widespread attitude in routine commerce and in financial markets. //我读到的版本一直围绕着“敝帚自珍”作文章,而这一版本并不在乎“朝朝暮暮”,只在意所有者的心态。作者鼓励大家thinks like a trader,这样不易落入销售圈套,提高股票市场的赚钱几率,增强The well-being that people experience as they live their lives。

Exposure effect: familiarity breeds liking. A reliable way to make people believe in falsehoods is frequent repetition, because familiarity is not easily distinguished from truth. Authoritarian institutions and marketers have always known this fact. //植入广告花样繁多, 不看电视但看知乎的姐姐有次建议我买瓶好用的马**眼霜。

Focusing illusion: nothing in life is as important as you think it is when you are thinking about it. People do not engage in a careful examination when they evaluate their life. Thoughts of any aspect of life are more likely to be salient if a contrasting alternative is highly available. //只有卧病不起时,才觉察健康的珍贵。

Framing effects: different ways of presenting the same information often evoke different emotions.

  1. Broad framing: a single comprehensive decision with all available options. //推荐的思考模式
  2. Disposition effect: is an instance of narrow framing. If the problem is framed as a choice between giving yourself pleasure and causing yourself pain, you will certainly sell winner rather than loser and enjoy your investment prowess.

Halo effect: increases the weight of first impressions, sometimes to the point that subsequent information is mostly wasted.

Hindsight bias: ‘I-knew-it-all-along’ effect’ means your inability to reconstruct past beliefs will inevitably cause you to underestimate the extent to which you were surprised by past events. Hindsight bias has pernicious effects on the evaluations of decision makers. It leads observers to assess the quality of a decision not by whether the process was sound but by whether its outcome was good or bad (Outcome bias). Hindsight is especially unkind to decision makers who act as agents for others – physicians, financial advisers, politicians.//医生趋于保守疗法的主因。

Lady Macbeth effect: feeling that one’s soul is stained appears to trigger a desire to cleanse one’s body.

Less is more: they added a cheap gift to the expensive product, and made the whole deal less attractive. //这违背逻辑的选择是因为我们依赖直觉System 1而不是理性System 2的结果。

 比对两种思考模式

比对两种思考模式

Narrative fallacy: describe how flawed stories of the past shape our views of the world and our expectations for the future. Narrative fallacies arise inevitable from our continuous attempt to make sense of the world. We humans constantly fool ourselves by constructing flimsy accounts of the past and believing they are true. //譬如总结人生真谛,成功秘诀。作者认为Great success = a little more talent + a lot of luck,也就是说成功可遇不可求,无法复制。

Optimistic bias: psychologists have confirmed that most people genuinely believe that they are superior to most others on most desirable traits. Risk takers underestimate the odds they face, and do invest sufficient effort to find out what the odds are. //自知之明要有心且用力,不过这和above average说法有些矛盾。

Planning fallacy: when forecasting the outcomes of risky projects, executives make decisions based on delusional optimism rather than on a rational weighting of gains, losses, and probabilities. However,  who acknowledge the full extent of their ignorance may expect to be replaced by more confident competitors, who are better able to gain the trust of clients. An unbiased appreciation of uncertainty is a cornerstone of rationality—but it is not what people and organizations want. //世间的吊诡一言难尽。

Possibility effect: causes highly unlikely outcomes to be weighted disproportionately more than they ‘deserve.’ People who buy lottery tickets in vast amounts show themselves willing to pay much more than expected value for very small chances to win a large prize. People who learned from a new catalog that the merchant was now charging less for a product that they had recently bought at a higher price reduced their future purchases from that supplier by 15%. The customers who reacted the most strongly were those who bought more items and at higher prices. The losses far exceeded the gains from the increased purchased produced by the lower prices in the new catalog.

绝大多数人会作出不利于自己的选择

绝大多数人会作出不利于自己的选择

我正洋洋得意自己属于极为个别的一小撮,但接下来作者给出的解释是他们可能是穷人。Their problem is that all their choices are between losses. Money that is spent on one good is the loss of another good that could have been purchased instead. For the poor, costs are losses.

Probability neglect: the combination of probability neglect with the social mechanisms of availability cascades inevitably leads to gross exaggeration of minor threats, sometimes with important consequence. A basic limitation in the ability of our mind to deal with small risks: we either ignore them altogether or give them far too much weight-nothing in between.  //因为有万万万分之一的可能性,不愿意给孩子接种疫苗。

Precautionary principle: prohibits any action that might cause harm.  It imposes the entire burden of proving safety on anyone who undertakes actions that might harm people or the environment. The precautionary principle is costly, and when interpreted strictly it can be paralysing. // 柴静对丁仲礼的采访就可以很清楚地了解这个概念。

Priming effect:  if you have recently seen or heard the word EAT, you are temporarily more likely to complete the work fragment SO_P as SOUP than as SOAP. The opposite would happen, if you had just seen WASH. Priming effect另的一个应用就是 Florida effect。Florida effect involves two stages of priming. First, the set of words primes thoughts of old age; second, these thoughts prime a behavaior, walking slowly, which is associated with old age. All this happens without any awareness.

Regret: losses are weighted about twice as much as gains in several contexts.People expect to have stronger emotional reactions to an outcome that is produced by action than to the same outcome when it is produced by inaction. Consumers who are reminded that they may feel regret as a result of their choices show an increased preference for conventional options, favouring brand names over generics.  另一个相关应用是Taboo tradeoff, the salesperson showed me the most expensive car seat and said it was the safest, and I could not bring myself to buy the cheaper model. In fact, the resistance may be motivated by a selfish fear of regret more than by a wish to optimize the child’s safety.

Loss aversion是天性

Loss aversion是天性

作者的意思是如果不是富人那么家庭可支配资源必然有限,选择世界上最好的安全椅就得放弃营养最高的奶粉,总之不可能面面俱到。还有一些家长宁可自己节衣缩食也不愿委屈孩子,他们的“初心”可并不崇高无私,而是无法承担主动选择的后果。

Sunk-cost fallacy: the decision to invest additional resources in a losing account, when better investments are available.  A rational decision maker is interested only in the future consequences of current investments. Justifying earlier mistakes is not among the rational decision maker concerns.//覆水难收,过去的就让它过去吧。

Illusion of validity: we knew as a general fact that our predictions were little better than random guesses, but we continued to feel and act as if each of our specific predictions was valid. 与其关联的是对自信的一个剖析。Confidence is a feeling, which reflects the coherence of the information and the cognitive ease of processing it. It is wise to take admissions of uncertainty seriously, but declarations of high confidence mainly tell you that an individual has constructed a coherent story in his mind, not necessarily that the story is true. Paradoxically, it is easier to construct a coherent story when you know little, when there are fewer pieces to fit into the puzzle. Our almost unlimited ability is to ignore our ignorance. //所谓无知者无畏。

Muller-Lyer illusion: the lines are of equal length yet still see them as being different.

我在小学暑假课本里就看见过类似的题目,所以尽管System 1还会不断告诉我它们有长有短,可System 2知道它们其实一样长。当然意识错误要比视觉错误更难以甄别,可毕竟我也学习过这么多得思维陷阱,明白The emotional tail wags the rational dog,希望自己可以做得更好一些吧。。