• About Me

    Lily@Melbourne, Australia


  • Follow 静水深流 || Still waters run deep on WordPress.com
  • Archives

  • Advertisements





我把low/high range的用桔黄色标出来,20个被衡量的特征,有13个在不是中间态的两端,看来我是比较与众不同的亚。


Sample Item: “Often I find myself lost in thought.”

This scale measures the extent to which individuals emphasize originality or prefer to embrace traditional values. It identifies whether an individual thinks creatively or conventionally, and the degree to which they are open-minded. Individual innovativeness will reflect whether an individual is imaginative, curious, inquiring and widely varied in their work interests. It also measures individual ability to deal with change in the physical and organizational environment. Individual differences in innovativeness tend to predict varying preferences for work environments and job structure, ranging from the conventional and familiar to the novel and stimulating.

Ms. Li scores in the low range on the Innovativeness scale, and is likely to be conventional, practical and concrete in her suggestions. She will tend to feel uncomfortable with change, preferring familiar routines and direction from others rather than developing her own ideas or proposals. She should flourish in a work environment that has structured and familiar tasks, and is suited to roles where structure, order and adherence to protocol are important. She will suit a position where strong adherence to existing policies, particularly related to the safety of herself and others, is a major responsibility of the role. She may be selective in her work interests and seek out roles in which appropriate behaviours or procedures are outlined, with limited scope for individual decision making and flexibility.//原来不懂创新的人,也可以flourish,性格无好坏,只有合适不合适。

Attention to Detail

Sample Item: “It is important for processes and procedures to be followed exactly.”

This scale measures the extent to which an individual desires precision, accuracy and completeness. It also indicates an individual’s preference to plan each task, identify all details that need to be addressed, and complete work with accuracy, neatness and freedom from errors. This scale also examines the degree to which individuals will meticulously follow plans, and ignore distracting environmental factors while focusing on the task at hand. It also examines an individual’s tendency to detect errors in their work, as well as continually checking and revising work to ensure accuracy.

Ms. Li scores in the mid-range on the Attention to Detail scale, and is quite capable of paying attention to small details, but may not do so consistently. She is less likely to be detail-oriented when time is limited or she is under stress. While she will not always show concern for getting everything absolutely correct, she will prefer to do so. She is most likely to identify errors and maintain a high level of precision when ample time is available to finish tasks. She will tend to strike a balance between the operational and strategic aspects of a role.

Divergent Thinking

Sample Item: “I approach problems in different ways.”

This scale measures the extent to which individuals are open to multiple ideas and alternative modes of thinking. Divergent thinking refers to a mode of critical thinking in which a person generates many novel ideas in response to a single question or problem. It is often related to creativity or ‘thinking outside the box’. It is an evaluation of an individual’s tendency to consider alternative perspectives and innovative approaches to work-related problems, and is generally related to the advancement of novel and comprehensive initiatives.

Ms. Li scores in the average range on the Divergent Thinking scale, and should be open to new ideas and methods of approaching complex tasks, and also prepared to implement improvements to current methods. However, when under stress or time pressure she may experience some difficulty remaining open to the implementation of new and original ideas, preferring to use established solutions. She is likely to be a valuable contributor of ideas in group discussions when there is ample time for the discussion process. Ms. Li’s approach to problem solving will generally be a balance between examining an issue from multiple angles to generate a number of valid solutions, and systematically applying tried-and-tested practices.

Preference for Risk Taking

Sample Item: “I enjoy venturing into the unknown.”

This scale measures the extent to which an individual is willing to take risks in a business environment in order to achieve desired goals. Risk taking behaviours relate to an individual’s willingness to tackle challenging tasks, even when a successful outcome is uncertain. It reflects a preference for taking risks, without being deterred by the possibility of making mistakes or facing negative outcomes. Optimum level of risk may be reliant on individual ability to determine what constitutes an acceptable level of risk, given the implications of the outcomes. Preference for Risk Taking is a measure of the excitement or thrill gleaned from facing or experimenting with the unknown, and reflects the likelihood that an individual will take chances to gain accomplishments.

Ms. Li scores highly on the Preference for Risk Taking scale, and will have a strong inclination towards challenging situations where the outcomes are uncertain. She typically finds excitement and thrill in taking chances with the unknown. The possibility of failure is less of an impediment to her actions when she is focused on accomplishment. She may be less suited to roles that require strict adherence to rules and regulations, and more appropriate in occupations allowing flexibility and taking chances. She is unlikely to be deterred by the possibility of error, and to prefer risky situations to safer settings. She may also have a tendency to prefer taking risks even when there are alternatives available, which may compromise work safety in certain situations. She is strongly inclined to view risk-taking behaviours as opportunities for expansion and improvement.

Procedure Acceptance

Sample Item: “Procedures are important to me.”

This scale describes the extent to which an individual places emphasis on organizational rules and processes. It expresses the degree to which an employee takes on responsibility driven by a sense of duty and compliance to rules and policies. It includes the extent to which an individual believes others should also adhere to established organisational procedures and protocols.

Ms. Li scores in the mid-range on the Procedure Acceptance scale, indicating a reasonable concern with adherence to protocol. She will have no more difficulty than most when it comes to following conventional procedures. She will sometimes question the purpose of established rules and regulations, and may implement her own methods where she considers organisational structure to be lacking. However, she generally adheres to professional standards and ethics, and tends to respect the customary policies and measures. She seems to mostly believe that tried and tested methods should be obeyed rather than altered, but when required by the situation, she is able to view company procedures as more of a guide than an imperative, and suggest improvements or modifications to enhance existing policies.

Task Focus

Sample Item: “Distractions do not usually prevent me from focusing on my tasks.”

This scale measures the degree of self-discipline and organisation in an individual’s work approach. The ability to concentrate on tasks and to effectively plan the approach to solving problems is also measured by this scale. Another aspect of this scale is an individual’s strength of concentration, and the extent to which individuals display efficient behaviour and the ability to resist distractions.

Ms. Li scores highly on the Task Focus scale, indicating that she will tend to be very well organised and focused on her work. She should be able to spend long periods of time concentrating on her work without becoming distracted. She will tend to be efficient with her prioritisation and planning of tasks, processes and goals. She is therefore likely to succeed in positions which require independent planning and organisation of tasks. She should be able to remain focused on tasks for long stretches without losing her train of thought, even when interrupted.

Tolerance for Ambiguity

Sample Item: “I often enjoy working in an environment where there is a lot of uncertainty.”

This scale measures an individual’s tendency to make sense of ambiguous information by detecting patterns in the data. The Tolerance for Ambiguity scale also encompasses an individual’s capacity to deal with incongruous or incomplete information, and to decipher how different aspects of problems are related to each other. It measures individual predisposition to opt for a particular optimal solution amongst diverse possibilities, as well as personal preference between subjective opinions and objective facts as sources of information.

Ms. Li scores highly on the Tolerance for Ambiguity scale. This indicates that she tends to adopt a more analytical and logical approach to thinking. She is likely to have a preference for dealing with objective rather than subjective information. She tends to cut through irrelevant information to find common themes or patterns inherent in the data. She also tends to focus effectively, and quickly diagnose problems and identify trends that may be present. She should have the capacity to see the ‘big picture’, which is helpful in professions that require her to think strategically and analyse issues. She should be adept at tasks such as policy interpretation, management of changing situations, and negotiating.

Self Management

Sample Item: “I would describe myself as ‘self-disciplined’.”

This scale measures aspects of an individual’s behaviour that are indicative of an ability to work in a productive, efficient, and goal-directed manner. These aspects include the self-belief required to be persistent in driving oneself towards success, as well as the ability to effectively organise and prioritise. The sense of responsibility an individual feels towards complying with company rules and following set procedures is also measured by this scale. Other aspects of this scale include an individual’s level of self-discipline to set and remain on task, as well as their ability to see the ‘big picture’ and identify various paths towards task completion.

Ms. Li scores within the average range on the Self Management scale, and will show most confidence in areas where she has a proven track record. She is able to work independently on tasks but may require some prompting or motivation in areas that hold little interest for her, or in which she has little experience. Ms. Li is likely to engage in planning, but may not make sufficient preparations when under time pressure. In stressful situations she may not always persevere in working towards set goals, or may prioritise less efficiently. She is as dependable as most, and is likely to be able to juggle working on many projects simultaneously. She is likely to have a flexible approach to work practices when required, and is generally able to make well considered decisions in limited time frames.

Stress Tolerance

Sample Item: “I become irritable under pressure.”

This scale assesses an individual’s unique reactivity to stressful work-related situations. Stress Tolerance is most often associated with a tendency to remain calm and composed within a workplace environment, as opposed to anxious, insecure or somewhat emotional. The scale measures tendency towards expressing a range of stressful emotions that people might experience during the course of their work, such as anger, anxiety, depression, vulnerability and self-consciousness. These emotions are fundamental determinants of workplace adjustment, and their measurement helps to ascertain how well an individual is likely to cope with demands and pressures encountered at work.

Ms. Li scores highly on the Stress Tolerance scale, and should remain calm, relaxed and rational regardless of the stressful situations encountered during the course of her work. She should be able to cope well with various workplace stressors, persevere despite discouraging circumstances, and manage to keep a ‘cool head’, remaining focused during a crisis. She tends to display resilience, calmness and stability in the face of workplace stressors. She tends to cope effectively with the typical challenges and pressures generally experienced within interpersonal contexts and organisational settings. Her generally high tolerance of stress assists her in remaining focused even when things fail to work out as planned. Her ability to manage negative emotions, remain resilient and work well under pressure suggests Ms. Li will be especially well suited to roles where stress is a necessary or unavoidable by-product of her work.

Driven by Ambition

Sample Item: “I have a strong desire to exceed expectations rather than just succeed.”

This scale measures the extent to which an individual desires achievement and success in both workplace and personal contexts. The scale measures the extent of one’s inner resources, individual desire for status and prestige at work, individual tendency to evaluate oneself in comparison to others, and the extent to which one desires a healthy work-life balance. It also measures general levels of aspiration and willingness to work hard to achieve goals.

Ms. Li scores in the lower range on the Driven by Ambition scale, and is likely to exhibit little desire for advancement or success in an organisation. She is more likely to hold a preference for job security, reliability, and a healthy work-life balance. She is likely to be satisfied with completing allocated tasks in a satisfactory fashion rather than seeking out and completing novel tasks to standards that exceed expectations, and is typically better suited to jobs that do not rely entirely on self-motivation for success. She may sometimes show low levels of energy or motivation and avoid competitive situations. However, her calm demeanour may relax workplace tension and thus benefit her colleagues. It is unlikely that status or prestige will hold much motivational value for her. //我真不喜欢当官,真心得哟

Internal Locus of Control

Sample Item: “It is I who is in control of my destiny, rather than fate or luck.”

Locus of control is an important and well-documented personality trait that refers to individual differences in generalized disposition of perceived control, and is known to be a stable predictor of job satisfaction as well as job performance. This scale measures the extent to which an individual attributes events in their life to internal factors, such as ability and hard work, rather than external factors such as luck or fate. This will often affect the desire to work towards achievements and to plan for long-term goals.

Ms. Li scores highly on the Internal Locus of Control scale, and believes that what happens to her is the result of her own actions and attributes. She sees herself as an active agent with the capacity to influence her environment, and is therefore motivated to use all of her abilities to gather and effectively utilize information in her decision making. Individuals such as Ms. Li will also be more persistent in the face of adversity, as they are confident in their ability to control their environment. She is also likely to believe that her own actions and attributes can greatly contribute to successful outcomes, even in stable environments where personal influence is usually limited.


Sample Item: “I find myself looking on the bright side of life.”

This scale measures the tendency of an individual to have a positive outlook. It measures an individual’s inclination to take a positive view of events or conditions, and also to anticipate the most positive outcome. People who are optimistic tend not to dwell on past misfortunes, and have the ability to remain positive even in the face of adversity. They tend to be confident and resilient in their ability to deal with difficulties. Optimists are positive about their present abilities and relationships, as well as their prospects for the future. Optimists maintain a view of the world as a positive place, believing most people to be inherently good. They are generally predisposed to take advantage of every opportunity that is made available to them.

Ms. Li’s score in the lower range on the Optimism scale indicates that she tends to have a less positive view of work situations than most. Tending to be somewhat sceptical, she may have difficulty in maintaining a positive approach when tasks are progressing poorly. Tending to see challenges as problems rather than opportunities, she may work less effectively than most to counter them because her outlook can lead to decreased problem-solving skills. Ms. Li may also tend to view the world in general as a less positive, colder place, and may see people as having ulterior motives rather than having faith in the goodness of people. However, one benefit of this pessimistic outlook is that someone expecting the worst is generally more ready when it eventually happens, and it can help her to more readily identify weaknesses in strategies and plans. //我是悲观者,我反复说过了


Sample Item: “People can rely on me to complete tasks on time.”

This scale measures the extent to which an individual can be depended on to reliably meet deadlines, be punctual and see commitments through to completion. The scale also examines the level to which an individual feels responsible for, and accepts the consequences of, their actions in both social and work environments. Other key factors assessed by this scale include integrity and honesty, which encompass an individual’s willingness to recognize, accept and admit their mistakes.

Ms. Li scores highly on the Responsibility scale, indicating that she has a tendency to work well in situations where she is required to be responsible and dependable. Colleagues will generally perceive her as an individual that can be relied upon, and may look to her to take responsibility when the situation calls for it. She will tend to a have a strong drive for punctual task completion, and often feels responsible for following her commitments through to completion. She is often focussed on meeting the expectations of her managers, due to her tendency to take her responsibilities seriously. As she will tend to have a high level of integrity and understand the value of honesty, she is liable to have strong beliefs that she should be held accountable for her actions, and that others should be held responsible for theirs. Given her focus on responsibility and dependability, Ms. Li is also likely to be highly punctual.

Self Regard

Sample Item: “I am not easily intimidated by others.”

This scale measures an individual’s attitude toward, and confidence in, their own abilities. Self regard encompasses belief in one’s own ability to succeed, and how much one is deterred by the criticism of others. It also assesses how one might react when placed under pressure by colleagues or encountering other challenging problems. Self regard is also related to level of confidence in expressing one’s beliefs and ideas in front of colleagues and managers.

Ms. Li scores highly on the Self Regard scale, indicating that she has confidence in her opinions and abilities. She will therefore be comfortable and willing to express her opinion in various situations, and is particularly likely to become involved in group discussions. She has sufficient self-assurance to believe that she can resolve problems that may arise, and she is confident in her ability to achieve and excel. Due to her high level of self-confidence, she is unlikely to be easily deterred by the criticisms of others regarding the achievement of goals. Ms. Li has a strong belief in her own skills and competencies. She should also be well suited to challenging roles that require her to develop and express opinions that will be subject to scrutiny.

Leadership/Taking Charge

Sample Item: “People would say that I am comfortable making decisions for the group.”

This scale measures the extent to which an individual is likely to desire taking on leadership roles. It assesses individual confidence in one’s ability to lead by example and take charge of a situation, and to coordinate others when placed in a team setting. Such coordination is related to clarifying priorities and objectives, delegating tasks, and encouraging co-operation and teamwork. Active Leadership also encompasses the ability to lead discussions and make decisions for the team, enabling tasks to be completed effectively and efficiently. Other aspects investigated by this scale include acting as a representative and an organiser.

Ms. Li has obtained an average score on the Leadership/Taking Charge scale. She is less likely to voluntarily undertake leadership or supervisory responsibilities in the workplace than a high scorer. However, She should be capable of fulfilling a leadership role when asked to manage the welfare, mentoring or coaching of others. She may experience some discomfort or apprehension when the stress of decision making for realising shared objectives lies solely with her. She will be quite capable of taking on leadership roles, but is unlikely to volunteer for a leadership position encompassing areas with which she is less familiar.

Social Confidence

Sample Item: “I look forward to social functions at work.”

This scale measures the extent to which individuals are confident in social situations. Socially confident individuals are likely to be outgoing, positive, sociable and active, whereas individuals low in social confidence are likely to be shy or reserved in work interactions, and less overtly cheerful than their more confident counterparts.

Ms. Li scores in the lower range of the Social Confidence scale, and will tend to appear quiet and reserved. Low scorers on social confidence are sometimes (and often incorrectly) viewed by others as cold or aloof. She will usually be seen as socially timid, finding large groups of people and loud environments somewhat intimidating, and therefore may prefer solitary work to group work. Seen as sober and serious in social interactions, she is likely to avoid becoming the centre of attention. Low scorers such as Ms. Li are usually quite happy to let others control things and make decisions. Being quite private, she is unlikely to express feelings such as excitement or unhappiness in the workplace. She will tend not to display optimism when approaching group tasks or peers, and is likely to prefer work environments that do not require constant interpersonal interaction. She will avoid taking social risks in the work environment.

Team Orientation

Sample Item: “I would rather collaborate with others than tell them what to do.”

This scale indicates the manner in which an individual approaches workplace interactions with colleagues, and measures the degree to which they are friendly, cooperative, modest and accommodating in a team environment. It measures an individual’s ability to express the skills needed to work productively within a team, and preference for communicating with and supporting colleagues in a non-confrontational manner. It also assesses the tendency to foster team environments where the opinions, thoughts and ideas of others are genuinely considered and valued, even when these might be in sharp contrast to one’s own.

Ms. Li scores in the average range on the Team Orientation scale, and would generally be described as warm and friendly in her relationships with colleagues and clients. She is likely to be relatively trusting without being naive, and is unlikely to hold unfounded suspicion towards others. She tends to be considerate and easy to work with, and is likely to effectively balance consideration for the needs of colleagues and clients with more objective or pragmatic concerns. She balances talking with listening, and is able to be empathetic when appropriate. She is likely to work well in areas that require her to both assert and defend her views on an issue, whilst still maintaining a productive level of cooperation in formal and informal negotiations. She may often be willing to help colleagues who are working towards the same goals, while remaining unlikely to let others make unreasonable demands of her.


Sample Item: “Others believe my opinion holds great weight.”

This scale measures the extent to which an individual perceives their ability to influence others’ opinions, actions or behaviour through argument, discussion or force of personality. These aspects include the ability to adapt their argument to fit the recipient, and also the tendency to drive discussions when interacting with others. It also measures the degree to which they perceive their ability to inspire and motivate others into action through encouragement.

Ms. Li scores within the lower range on the Influence-Persuasion scale, and will tend to believe that her powers of persuasion are quite limited. She perceives it to be relatively difficult for herself to modify the perspectives or behaviour of others in the workplace. Others may perceive her as less influential than most. She may also have little confidence in her power to motivate others. She will tend to feel uncomfortable in situations where it is necessary for her to win others over to her opinion. Ms. Li would be less suitable for positions which involve compelling others to her point of view, such as managerial roles or sales positions.

Preference for Teamwork

Sample Item: “Groups are usually more productive than individuals.”

This scale measures the extent to which an individual prefers to work in a team, and how effective they believe group work is compared to individual work. It assesses the relative emphasis an individual places on team goals compared to individual goals, and whether they believe that teamwork is an effective and productive way of completing tasks. It measures the extent to which an individual’s motivation is more driven by group success or individual success. It also measures an individual’s tendency to communicate effectively and to listen actively within a team context.

Ms. Li scores in the lower range on the Preference for Teamwork scale. She may show less desire to work in a group situation and tends to prefer working alone wherever possible. She is likely to believe that individuals are more effective and productive working alone than in groups or teams. She may perceive the input of colleagues or team members as interference, and dislike working in a team context. She may also be more motivated by individual success than group success, and therefore put her own goals ahead of team goals. Individuals such as Ms. Li tend to perform better when working alone rather than in groups, and as a result are better suited to individual work roles.


Sample Item: “I often think about possible problems that the organisation may face.”

Vision refers to the ability to build a mental picture of the future and to be oriented toward this future. This scale measures the extent to which the individual considers the future in their thinking. This includes the tendency to anticipate potential problems and outcomes when undertaking tasks. An ability to develop strategies and to view tasks from long-term and varying perspectives helps in countering obstacles and anticipating problems. Such vision allows tasks to be completed more effectively and efficiently. The Vision scale also measures an individual’s ability to work towards improving current methods to achieve greater efficiency in future. Other aspects of the scale include an individual’s ability to visualise the various avenues to completion for a complex project, seeing the ‘big picture’, and considering how possible outcomes may affect the organisation as a whole.

Ms. Li scores in the middle range on the Vision scale, and will vary in her use of planning and foresight. She is more likely to appropriately predict future outcomes in areas where she has solid knowledge and expertise. This may be less likely to occur when there are time limitations or other pressures. Mentoring could help to build on her average capacity to develop foresight in relation to organisational demands, as would a linkage between current activities and future positioning of projects in the organisation.



Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com 徽标

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  更改 )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  更改 )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  更改 )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  更改 )


Connecting to %s

%d 博主赞过: