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    Lily@Melbourne, Australia

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我是谁

“轻度洁癖,聪明,优雅,毅力,急躁,良好的品位,严格要求自己和别人,容易不耐烦”

——姐姐对我个性的概括

**************************************************

我一直都很好奇与个性分析,所以才会在假期里啃这样一本理论类的专业书。它系统地粗略地概括了心理学上的最主要的几大流派,详情见加贴的表格,可是我仍然难以对号入座。

心理学上的理论很多源于日常的观察,然后再根据实验来证明假设的成立。譬如来日无多的老年人更热衷于此时此刻的欢乐,而年轻人因为还有无数个明天所以更乐于学习新知识。譬如有通情达理的双亲的孩子通常会比较少地物质滥用。譬如童年受过性侵犯的女性在成年后对罗曼蒂克的感受远远低于没有遭受污辱的。譬如一根筋的领导人更适合天翻地覆的起义,而守江山则需要那些多根筋的……
很同意“选择性失明”的观点,即只接受和自我意识思考逻辑相符的内容。我自己就是此中典型。我非常不擅长打电玩,所以记住了所有读到听到的玩游戏的负面新闻,至于它提高手脑协调能力,反应能力等等的好处则归结为商家推销的手段,样本容量的太小,测试方法的不科学。再有我是一个悲观者,对于每天起来对镜中的自己微笑给自己打气鼓励的心灵鸡汤们的评论是骗骗小朋友的棒棒糖,然而当有实证“Defensive pessimism”也是成功的一个特质,我就立即欣然接受这个结论,全然忽视了一个批判者该有的谨慎和独立思考的能力。所以,我会很怀疑这些那些的结果,因为从一开始,从试验的设置对象的选择到行为的解释就不是完完全全的中立和客观。

没有做OCEAN之前,我就知道自己是内向的,有目标的情绪比较稳定以及乐于接受新事物的,测试之后的结果也差不多。我也知道自己喜欢唱唱反调,在文学书里我倾向于配角更甚于主角,主角是模式化的高大全而配角则有血有肉与现实相近。在心理学上我对东方是集体主义西方是个人主义非常不以为然,我觉得这是西方学者在没有经过深入研究根据经验而匆匆得出的结论。一个连交流都需借助翻译的心理学家如何能抓住一个社会/集体的核心?行为学家会说我的匪夷所思是为了寻求关注,就像一个婴儿通过大声地哭来得到乳汁和怀抱,可是我自觉并不爱出风头,身处聚焦的场合倒反而让我浑身上下不自在。//我没有参加典礼的一个原因,是拿到奖学金的得走上台前。

我有些洁癖,表现在外面的是写文章或读一本书,我会把写字台整理干净,手指夹剪干净,茶杯一定得端放在杯垫上。体现在内心,我会非常敏感地避开流行中的遣词造句。在我看来模仿者就是写字台上的头发丝,指甲缝隙里的龌龊。第一个人打出“给力”“童鞋”我会赞赏他/她用词灵活和新奇,当满屏的“伤不起呀”就生出“有木有搞错啊”的厌恶情绪。还有上学期为了参与老师的微博,特意注册了一个新帐号m…it,不久有一‘itm…’的粉丝和跟贴,此人在我心里等同于茶杯盖遗留下的一个印渍。

最后,我觉得个性是可以通过努力改善的,然而这个活动区间却是天生注定的。CSI的level1无法改变自己的暴力基因,但他可以加以克制并把天赋运用到侦破连环杀人犯上。我有信心变成一辈子的乐观的悲观者(这是我给自己按下的标签),但骨子里我摆脱不开悲观的底子。我对他人的看法跟父亲一样简单平面一维,所不同的是我把他的好人坏人发展成有意思的人和没意思的人。

附录

Theorist,
Theory, or

Approach

Structure Process Growth and Development Pathology Change
Freud Id, ego, superego; unconscious, preconscious, conscious Sexual and aggressive instincts; anxiety and the mechanisms of defense Erogenous zones; oral anal, phallic stages of development; Oedipus complex Infantile sexuality; fixation and regression; conflict; symptoms Transference; conflict resolution; “Where id was, ego shall be”
Rogers Self; ideal self Self-actualization; congruence of self and experience; incongruence and defensive distortion and denial Congruence and self-actualization versus incongruence and defensiveness Defensive maintenance of self; incongruence Therapeutic atmosphere: congruence, unconditional positive regard, empathic understanding
Trait Approaches Traits Traits as causes of action Contributions of heredity and environment to traits Extremes scores on trait dimension No formal model
Learning Approaches Response Classical conditioning; instrumental conditioning; operant conditioning Schedules of reinforcement and  successive approximation Maladaptive learned response patterns Extinction; discrimination learning; counter-conditioning; positive reinforcement; systematic desensitization; behavior modification
Kelly Constructs Processes channelized by anticipation of events Increased complexity and definition to construct system Disordered functioning of construct system Psychological reconstruction of life; invitational mood; fixed-role therapy
Social- Cognitive
Theory
Beliefs; standards; goals; competencies Observational learning; vicarious conditioning; self-evaluative and self-regulatory processes Social learning through observation and direct experience; development of self-efficacy judgments and standards for self-regulation Learned response patterns; excessive self-standards; problems in self-efficacy Modeling; guided participation; increased self-efficacy; cognitive therapy

 

//虽然有paste from word,但表格的格式还是被覆盖了,很差!

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