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心理随堂笔记(一)

老师:Professor Paul Bloom
因为是笔记,不系统很零碎。
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中心或启示:if you actually ask dying people, or really old people basically, “What do you regret from your life?” they regret the things as a rule that they didn’t try. But when you asked them why they didn’t try it the answers tended to be “I would look silly.” And it turns out, interesting to know, that people just don’t care as much as other people think you are. You could take that as good news or bad news but the spotlight is not on us as much as we think it is.

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老师说世界上大致可以分为3种伦理体系:一是自治,一是集体另一是宗教,西方世界多为(自认为)自治,核心理念是只要不妨碍他人那么每个人就应该享有充分的自由和平等。然而随后举了四个很极端的例子,请在座表决却发现并非那么简单的一分为三。老师说在我们(西方)的环境中,我们不愿意承认自己有些时候不那么具有自治精神,我们罗列了种种理由来证明自己的反感是有道理的,然而剥开其伪善的表面,那深埋在冰山下的潜意识会让我们错愕。那四个例子分别是兄妹发生只止一次的性关系,一个男人从超市买来冰冻鸡发泄性欲后继而满足食欲,国旗当作抹布擦洗马桶和宠物狗被撞死后作为食物端到了主人的饭桌。老师注意到说OK的人始终是那几个人,他说这些毫不犹豫举手地才是彻彻底底纯纯粹粹地贯彻了自治精神。//我是其中之一,我觉得但凡是你情我愿的且没有伤害到局外人,其他人没有资格做价值道德的判断,这里有必要说明的是我从来没有把动物看作与人同一等级,如果是动物保护组织的成员,可能觉得这里有伤害,蹂躏了它们。课后,我把这个问题抛给了姐姐,她说这跟我有什么关系呢?在集体熏陶多年的教育里,我们这两人大概算是怪物了,呵呵。

老师接着说因为或多活少地插了上了有色镜片,进而很容易地就看低了那些这些不符合你心目中道德伦理价值观的人,在历史的长河中 “Jews, women, homosexuals, untouchables, lower class people”等等就是这么地被一次次地丑化和强化,让其他人相信他们是低级的劣等的不可教化的,规范他们的办法就是暴力隔离奴隶杀戮。女人如衣服,同性恋与艾滋病,还有CSI里变态杀人狂多数出生底层………………很多很多的例子,举不胜举。归根结底是没有把对方看作是和自己一样的有血有肉的有意识有感情的灵魂。另一个原因是把自己融入到团体当中,把自己看成是服从命令执行命令的一台精密机器来推卸自己的责任和良知。老师举得例子是士兵会在脸上涂满油彩让人看不清楚他的本来面目。我想到的是闯红灯,明明知道如此违反了交通规则,但法不责众么。如果要消除敌意,得多接触多亲近这类人,要是能树立一个共同奋斗的目标就更好了。老师半开玩笑地说,当外星人进攻地球之时才能团结全世界人民齐心协力同仇敌忾。我补充一个事例,11月的上海大火让人感受到了空前一致的友爱互助,冷血的加一句,是不是正是因为我们都可能都住在岌岌可危的建筑里,情真意切的悲伤中还有兔死狐悲的惴惴不安。在冷风里排队鲜花的人扪心自问一下何曾用同样的心去关心过煤矿塌方富士康跳楼那些更为惨烈的事故?因为,我们,我们的亲人、熟人很少会经历面临这些危险。。。

再有一个因素是我们自认为自己各方面高于平均水平(显而易见,总有一半人一定低于平均)。我们把成功多归因为自己个人特征(聪明,努力),而把失败归结为外因(机遇,状态)。这虽然是西方思维,东方人的甚至是颠倒过来,但是,同样地看成是超人。譬如开头的一段启示,我们认为自己的所作所为都尽收他人眼底。譬如合理化,哪怕事后证明我们是站错了队伍。课上给出的例子有加入兄弟会的非人考验,义工更加感到工作的趣味和意义,做心理咨询必须要收费用。我想的有公务员,千军万马的考将过去,也就逐渐地赞同官僚作风。反过来譬如我因为没能混上一官半职所以加倍肯定自己没有同流合污是在维护清白。(强调能自嘲暗喻成长或者仍然是认知偏差)所以我加倍地佩服姐姐,S他们,他们克服掉了人类天性中要千方百计给自己找借口找台阶下的本能。

总结:让一个我本善良的人做出发指的恶行主要有三点因素在发挥作用,其一用自己的道德尺子来衡量别人是高是低,低分则自动去人格化。其二把自己的头脑交由集体他人做主。最后把自己看高认定所做所为都是有意义有价值的。逆向思考以上三点,三思而后行。

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名词解释

恶势力:Forces for bad are to lose yourself as an individual, lose yourself in a crowd, lose yourself because there is some authority using you as an instrument, lose yourself because you’re anonymous, plus treat others not as people, as numbers, as objects, as disgusting things.

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附赠:
非常经典的罗夏墨迹测试>>,很希望做完的同学能贴上结果,评语都是很刻薄的,请不要觉得不好意思。在国内读心理学时,老师都保留了分析部分,很不过瘾!

我的:

Sickness Quotient: 49%Congratulations! At a 49% “Sickness Quotient”, you’re almost well-adjusted.

Interpersonal Insights:You complain about everything regardless of what it is. You wouldn’t be happy even if you were hit by a new car. You think everyone is out to get you, and you’re absolutely right. It’s because you’re an awful person without any redeeming qualities.

Job Performance & Attitude: Your work is of such poor quality that your manager is considering replacing you with a machine that flushes. You aspire to becoming the CEO of a large, powerful company. This is unlikely since you rarely leave your parent’s basement.

Personality Insight: Your personal motto is “Practice makes perfect.”, but since nobody’s perfect you might as well stop wasting your time.

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